Smartphones have become ubiquitous in today’s world and has become an integral part of our daily lives. However, our excessive dependency of smartphones, can at times become a source of frustration for us :
You have come to a remote area for work and can’t make a call to your friends and family as there is poor network connectivity.
You have come to a new city and since you are not very comfortable with the roads, you want to refer to Google maps. However, your phone gets discharged.
While these frustrating scenarios can be averted through proper planning, when it comes down to machines/devices used and manufactured in industries, it becomes very critical to make sure we plan for an appropriate infrastructure for connectivity (both within a factory, as well as to the web hosted cloud). We don’t want a situation, when the machine wanted to communicate an important piece of information, but couldn’t do so, either because the gateway device wasn’t charged or the connectivity layer couldn’t transmit the data and converted it into undesirable noise.
There are multiple technologies available with different connectivity ranges and varying power consumption levels. Some of the most prominent ones have been described below :
|S.No.||Name||Type of Protocol||Range(m)||Use||USP||Frequency(GHz)||Data Rate||Energy Usage||Standard|
|1||Bluetooth||Communications||50-150||Personal devices||Low power ; smart phones have it||2.4||1 Mbps||Low||Bluetooth 4.2 core specification|
|2||Zigbee||Communications||10-100||Industrial settings||Low power ; secure ; high node counts||2.4||250 kbps||Low||ZigBee 3.0 based on IEEE802.15.4|
|3||Zwave||Communications||10-30||Home automation||support 232 devices ; low-latency transfer||0.9||9.6/40/100kbit/s||Low||Z-Wave Alliance ZAD12837 / ITU-T G.9959|
|4||6LowPan||Network||N/A||IP address provider||IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) stack||Universal compatability||N/A||N/A||RFC6282|
|5||Thread||Network||N/A||Home automation||Compliments WiFi ; handles 250 nodes||2.4||N/A||N/A||Thread based on IEEE802.15.4 and 6LowPAN|
|6||Wifi||Communications||0-50||Homes Offices||high transmission ; reliable||Bands – 2.4 and 5||150-1000||Medium||Based on 802.11n|
|7||Cellular||Communications||35000-200000||Potentially everywhere||high quality of data at high speed||0.9/1.8/1.9/2.1||35-170kps (GPRS), 120-384kbps (EDGE), 384Kbps-2Mbps (UMTS), 600kbps-10Mbps (HSPA), 3-10Mbps (LTE)||High||GSM/GPRS/EDGE (2G) UMTS/HSPA (3G) LTE (4G)|
|8||NFC||Communications||0-0.1||Smartphones ; contactless payment transactions||Safe and simple two way communication||0.013||100–420kbps||Low||ISO/IEC 18000-3|
|9||SigFox||Communications||3000-50000||M2M applications that run on a small battery and only require low levels of data transfer||uses ultra narrow band spectrum ; no need for license to use ; high stand by time||0.9||10-10000 bps||Very Low||Sigfox|
|10||Neul||Communications||0-10000||M2M applications that run on a small battery and only require low levels of data transfer||devices will last long ; highly scalable low cost||0.9(ISM)/0.45(UK)/0.48-0.8(White space)||0.001-100 kbps||Very Low||Neul|
|11||LoraWan||Communications||2000-15000||bi-directional communication in IoT M2M||low cost ; low power consumption||Various||0.3-50 kbps.||LoRaWAN|